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Endangered Species Related to Mangroves

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species lists most flora and fauna under seven categories ranging from “Little Concern” to “Extinct”. These categories are based on the current population of a species, population trends (whether increasing or decreasing and how fast) and threats faced by the species. Hunting, habitat loss / degradation and climate change are the three biggest threats to nature and this problem is rapidly increasing the number of endangered species.

List of several species published by IUCN associated with mangroves ranging from “Vulnerable” to “Critically Endangered”. The list includes fauna that depend on mangroves for all or part of their life as well as flora that are part of the mangrove itself. Many of these species are closely related to each other and ecosystems are intertwined, which means that the loss of one species can have devastating effects on other species. The loss of flora and fauna species as well as biodiversity is another reason why protecting mangrove habitat is so important. The following are several types of fauna that live in association in the mangrove ecosystem, both at the top, stems and roots of the mangrove

Fish Group

Sembilang (Plotosus sp), penyumpit (Toxotes sp), kitang, glodok/tembakul (Periopthalmus sp), buntal (Tetraodon sp), belanak (Mugil sp), lundu dan betutu (Oxyeleotris marmorata).

Group of Insects

Laba-laba (Cyptophora beccani), capung (Aeshinidae sp), kupu-kupu (Lycanidae sp), lalat (Drosophila sp), jangkrik tanah (Apterone mobius), nyamuk (Culicidae sp).

Reptile Group

Buaya muara (Crocodilus porosus), ular bakau (Trimeresurus pupuremaculatus), ular air (Enhydris enhydris), ular tanah (Cerberus rhynchops), ular daun (Bungarus laticep), ular cincin/belang kuning (Boiga dendrophila), ular hijau (Trimeresurus albolabris), ular sawak (Pyton molurus), biawak (Varanus salvator).

Crustacean Group

Udang galah (Macrobrancium rosenbergii), rama-rama (Thalassina anomala), kepiting bakau (Scylla serrata), udang (Penaeus sp).

Worms & Amphibians

Cacing nipah dan umpun-umpun (Polycaeta sp), katak bakau (Rana cancrivora).

Aves Group (Poultry)

Elang bondol (Haliastur indus), wallet (Collocalio esculente), layang-layang (Hirundo tahtica).

Mollusca Group

Siput babi (Ellobium sp), umang-umang (Caenobita cavipes), lintah laut (Onchidium sp).

Mammals Group

Babi (Sus scrofa), berang-berang (Cunogale benneti), musang (Paradoxurus hermaproditus), tikus (Rattus sp), kelelawar (Cynopterus sp), monyet (Macaca fascicularis).

Impact of Global Warming on Coastal and Marine Ecosystems

The phenomena of global warming and depletion of the ozone layer due to an increase in excessive greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere through the use of fossil fuels, deforestation and other human activities, have a negative impact on the sustainability of coastal and marine ecosystems, including; (a) Coral reef communities (b) Increased ultraviolet-B radiation that enters the waters so that it inhibits the photosynthesis process and the growth of phytoplankton as the main producer and biggest absorber of CO2 in marine waters, (c) The threat of extinction of marine animals due to increased temperatures and decreased salinity of the waters sea, and (d) sea level rise due to melting ice in the Earth’s polar regions can submerge coastal areas and drown small islands.

All of them have the potential to threaten the sustainability of coastal and marine ecosystems to support human life. For this reason, efforts to reduce the rate of global warming by reducing the use of fossil fuels and reducing high rates of deforestation and minimizing other activities that produce excessive greenhouse gas emissions are concrete actions that must be taken immediately before it is too late.

"Time to save the environment and coastal forests from now on with your own actions."